There are basically two main areas on which you may need to spend some extra time, or that you might enroll in a golf instruction course to focus on. Those are the Swing and the Short Game.
The Swing: Getting off to the right start in your game, isn't just a matter of stepping up to the tee and whacking the ball. There are a lot of things to learn between taking a wood out of your bag, and connecting with the ball.
While the instructor may start you off one way, as you become familiar with the clubs and what works best for you, the approach to the tee will become a personal one. Consistency is often the key to making the same quality drive, every time.
That consistency can include everything from pre-shot preparation, such as laying down a club to look at the lie of the ground, or going directly to the tee, placing a ball, and then adjusting your stance. Your body position both before the upswing and after the downswing, will also be crucial elements in getting the most out of the long drive first shots.
When you move off the tee, you've still got long shots to go. This is where the professional instructors will introduce irons, and which ones are most appropriate, according to the distance to the flag, and the lie of the ball.
The instructor's presence is for the purpose of teaching and feedback. But depending on the course or school you have enrolled in, it may be possible to also get a visual record of your play and problems, through tapes that are made during the lessons.
The Short Game: This area of play includes putting, chip, and bunker shots. These require specialized approaches, according to where your ball is in relation to the fairway or green, and what shot you're on for the hole. These are primarily "control" shots, which have to be learned through experience and practice.
For chip shots, the technique taught may include such things as a close stance, placing your hands further down the club shaft, and limiting your back swing. Shots out of the bunker require more work, since your ball could be in shallow, deep, wet or dry sand, on a downhill lay or on an upward slope.
Your pro will introduce you to the advantages of the sand wedge, and how the degree of loft for each, can impact how quickly you get out of the trap.